The Lectin – FODMAP Diet Connection

Lectin FODMAP

Symptoms of pain, bloating, flatulence, constipation and/or diarrhea are commonly present in various gastrointestinal disorders and are often attributed to a functional gut disturbance. Those dealing with these symptoms is frustrating with often unsatisfactory long-term results.

Fructose is receiving increasing attention as a factor in the diet that, when malabsorbed, may induce these symptoms. However, fructose is only one of many poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates (Fermentable Oligo-, Di- and Mono-saccharides And Polyols or FODMAPs) in the diet. Proponents of the FODMAPS diet focus only on the naturally occurring sugar in foods because so many are having trouble with their blood sugar.

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A “Stealth fiber” and “Natural sweetener” is increasingly added to processed foods, while not a problem for most, can cause gastrointestinal discomfort for those who may not know they’re consuming it. The fiber is called “inulin.” Proponent of inulin are focused on the benefits because “fiber” and “natural” have become synonymous with it. They are not aware of possibility inulin is causing gastrointestinal symptoms.

This is not to say, FODMAPS or inulin do not cause gastrointestinal symptoms to occur. One must first ask –  What must occur for FODMAPS or inulin to be problematic? The narrow focus fails to recognize the same foods containing FODMAPS are protected by toxic Lectins. As you can see from the table below, Lectins not only cause the same symptoms as FODMAPS and inulin. Lectins cause the damage to the tissue required to metabolize the FODMAPS, while inulin disturbs the gastrointestinal terrain and microbial behavior. All plants, organic, conventionally grown or genetically modified have active lectins. In fact, the FODMAPS list is identical to the Lectin food list.

Symptoms and Damage  Caused by FODMAPS, Inulin & Lectins

FODMAP

Inulin

Lectin

Bloating

X

X

X

Abdominal Distention

X

X

X

Discomfort

X

X

X

Abdominal Pain

X

X

X

Excess Gastrointestinal Rumbling

X

X

X

Diarrhea

X

X

X

Toxic to wounded cells

X

Unlock intestinal barrier

X

Bind to red blood cells causing anemia symptoms

X

Damage collagen and connective tissue in joints

X

Bind to and damages the gastrointestinal lining

X

Binds to and damages the Pancreas

X

Promote the overgrowth of commensal bacteria

X

X

X

Promote the overgrowth of E. coli

X

Promote translocation of commensal bacteria

X

X

Bind to TSH receptors stimulating TSH antibodies

X

Provoke a direct cytokine driven immune response

X

Damage the Abdominal Brain (Enteric Nervous System)

X

Lectin: Plant regulation of Vegetable & Fruit Consumption

Plants invest energy into the production of fruits. Plants have evolved to encourage fruit eaters to consume their fruit for seed dispersal but also evolved mechanisms to decrease consumption of fruits when unripe and from non-seed dispersing predators. Plants have physical and chemical deterrents.
Physical deterrents:

  • Cryptic coloration (e.g. green fruits blend in with the plant leaves)
  • Unpalatable textures (e.g. thick skins made of anti-nutritive substances)
  • Resins and saps (e.g. prevent animals from swallowing)
  • Repellent substances, hard outer coats, spines, thorns.

Chemical deterrents
When immature or out-of-season, the seed, grain, vegetable or fruit are protected by chemical deterrents such as lectins to keep themselves from being eaten to extinction. Chemical deterrents in plants are called secondary metabolites, i.e. trypsin inhibitor, chymotrypsin inhibitor, α-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagluttinin (lectin), phytic acid, oxalic acid, nitrate and nitrite, L-mimosine, canavanine, L-DOPA, glucosinolates, cyanogenic glucosides/cyanogens, tannins, gossypol, chlorogenic acid, saponins, phorbol esters and alkaloids. The production of lectins, alkaloids and secondary metabolites are a defense mechanism to protect them from consumption while the plant is growing and before the seeds are ready for dispersal.

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Lectins inhibit the natural repair system of the GI tract, potentially leaving the rest of the body open to the impact of errant, wandering (i.e. unwanted) material from the digestive system.  Perhaps the most insidious impacts lectins can leave in their wake is leaky gut. Leaky gut is a term used for the breach of the Barrier Variables of the intestinal lining produced by lectins moving hand in hand with other physical/environmental triggers and other anti-nutrients. Once the intestinal breach occurs, lectins and other particles (like partially digested food, toxins, etc.) can “leak” into the bloodstream and provoke an inflammatory cytokine response throughout the body. Lectins cause much more than Leaky Gut. For more information:ebook-itunesgumroad-lectin-ebook

FODMAPS

Fructose is a sugar that is present widely in the diet as free fructose, in the disaccharide, sucrose, and in fructans, which are chains of fructose. Fructans are also known as inulins, or fructo-oligosaccharide(FOS) or oligofructose. Fructose is only one of a family of short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates(termed FODMAPs—see below) in the diet.

Fructose has created much interest because of its possible role in contributing to the obesity epidemic and for its role in inducing functional gut symptoms. Symptoms such as bloating, abdominal distention, discomfort, pain, and altered bowel habits are often described as “functional” gut symptoms (FGD) since their cause is usually related to alterations in the function of the gut and enteric nervous system.

The attention to fructose and its malabsorption in the small intestine as a possible major dietary trigger has led to excitement that an effective dietary approach to patients with FGD by the proponents of the FODMAPS Diet.

The FODMAP theory holds that consuming foods high in FODMAPs results in increased volume of liquid and gas in the small and large intestine, resulting in distention and symptoms such as abdominal pain and gas and bloating. The theory proposes that following a low FODMAP diet should result in a decrease in digestive symptoms. The theory further holds that there is a cumulative effect of these foods on symptoms. In other words, eating foods with varying FODMAP values at the same time will add up, resulting in symptoms that you might not experience if you ate the food in isolation. This might explain the mixed results of studies that have evaluated the effects of fructose and lactose, two types of carbohydrates, on IBS.

Inulin

Food manufacturers have a past history with taking a single ingredient out of a whole food and refining it. Over and over this has been shown to be deleterious to our health. “Stealth fiber” and “Natural sweetener” are increasingly added to processed foods, while not a problem for most, can cause gastrointestinal discomfort for some who may not know they’re consuming too much of it. The fiber and sweetener is called “inulin.”

Inulin is increasingly used in processed foods because it has unusually adaptable characteristics. Its flavor ranges from bland to subtly sweet. It is being used to replace sugar, fat, and flour. Due to the body’s limited ability to process fructans, inulin has minimal increasing impact on blood sugar. It is used in Diabetic friendly food with claims that inulin is helpful in managing blood sugar-related illnesses. This is advantageous because inulin contains 25-35% of the food energy of carbohydrates (starch, sugar) and is touted as being “high fiber” and “low glycemic”.

The body is genetically adapted to certain foods and as we continue to mess with our food chain, our health suffers the consequences. Of the nutritional fibers, cellulose was the most likely to be included in a traditional hunter-gatherer diet. Cellulose is an insoluble fiber that is slowly fermented by the microbial population in the human colon. Inulin/FOS is a soluble fiber that is quickly and easily fermented. “The difference between cellulose (a food we are adapted to) and inulin/FOS (a food we are not adapted to in large quantities) is like the difference between a slow burning ember and a raging fire.

In terms of nutrition, it is considered a form of soluble fiber and is sometimes categorized as a prebiotic. Conversely, it is also considered a FODMAP, a class of carbohydrates, which are problematic for some individuals through causing overgrowth of intestinal methanogenic bacteria. The consumption of inulin (in particular, by sensitive or unaccustomed individuals) can lead to gas, flatulence, bloating, abdominal pain, excess gastrointestinal rumbling, and diarrhea and products that contain inulin will sometimes include a warning to add it gradually to one’s diet.

The Bad Properties of Inulin:

Manufacturers claim that inulin/FOS specifically feeds only good bacteria. Unfortunately, this isn’t reality. Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients believed to beneficially affect host health by selectively stimulating the growth of the beneficial bacteria residing in the gut. Such beneficial bacteria have been reported to protect against pathogenic infections. Contradicting information on results on infections with prebiotics have been published.

In terms of the mechanism of inhibition, metabolic end products, such as acids excreted by these microorganisms, may lower the gut pH to levels below those at which commensal bacteria are able to effectively compete. While at the same time, the lowering of intestinal pH to a point where enzymes become destructive. Enzymes need a specific narrow pH range to be beneficial. There is an inverse relationship between low pH and high enzyme levels that stimulate toxin production from beneficial bacteria.

Impaired Intestinal Barrier Function

Prebiotics, such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), stimulate the protective gut microflora, resulting in an increased production of organic acids resulting in increased luminal killing of acid-sensitive microbes. Rapid fermentation of prebiotics leading to high concentrations of organic acids impairing intestinal barrier function. Inulin and FOS decrease intestinal pH and increased fecal lactobacilli and commensal bacteria. This decrease pH, increased commensal bacteria (AKA good bacteria) with increased enzyme levels stimulates the good bacteria to produce toxins, shifting the gastrointestinal environment into a Ghetto Gut.

In a Ghetto Gut, both prebiotics increase the cell toxicity of fecal water and fecal mucus excretion. FOS increased cell toxicity of fecal water and intestinal permeability. FOS increases fecal mucus excretion and mucus concentrations in cecal and colonic contents, and in cecal mucosa before infection occurs. After an infection or overgrowth occurs, mucus excretion and intestinal permeability is increased by FOS. In addition, FOS increased translocation of bacteria to blood, lymph and other organs. Thus, FOS (FODMAPS) impairs the intestinal barrier and causes increased intestinal permeability already damaged by consumption of lectins.
High concentrations of organic acids in gastrointestinal tract impair the intestinal barrier function. GOS/inulin supplementation causes increased bacterial translocation (BT) especially in immunocompromised individuals.

BACTERIAL TRANSLOCATION

Bacterial translocation is the movement of bacteria or bacterial products across the intestinal membrane to emerge either in the lymphatics or the visceral circulation. Gut translocation of bacteria is defined as the passage of gastrointestinal microflora across the intestinal lining to local mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and from there throughout the body.

Bacterial translocation initiate a cytokine response from immune cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Three primary mechanisms that promote bacterial translocation have been identified: intestinal bacterial overgrowth; increased permeability of the intestinal mucosal barrier; and deficiencies in host immune defenses.
Changes in intestinal permeability are caused by loss of tight junction integrity and by damage to the enteric nervous system. This passive movement of bacteria across the intestinal epithelium occurs when bacteria would follow the pathway of large molecules across the intestinal lining. Under normal circumstances translocating bacteria should be phagocytosed within the mesenteric lymph nodes.

However, if a person is immunocompromised, the normal defense mechanisms is failing, permitting the movement and survival of these bacteria at distant sites throughout the body. The inference being that with increasing severity of illness, bacterial translocation occurs because of the inability of the person’s immune system to deal adequately with the numbers of bacteria present.

Immunosuppression is associated with increased translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes with increased translocation to blood. Deficiencies in immunoglobulins have been implicated in the penetration of bacteria into the intestinal lining. The damage caused by lectins to the intestinal lining leave E. coli as the main bacteria able to thrive in the gastrointestinal tract.

The possibility that bacterial translocation may not be an all or none phenomenon has been previously suggested. Studies show the presence of E coli in the mesenteric lymph nodes but stool tests show reduced amounts in the same patients.

E. coli can respond to environmental signals such as chemicals, pH, temperature, osmolarity, etc., in a number of very remarkable ways considering it is a unicellular organism. For example, it can sense the presence or absence of chemicals and gases in its environment and swim towards or away from them. Or it can stop swimming and grow fimbriae that will specifically attach it to a cell or surface receptor contributing to the formation of biofilm. As a member of the intestinal biofilm community, E. coli continually exchanges DNA/genes with other bacteria in the gut and picks up three useful genes, to become a pathogen:

  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Hemagglutinin for sticking to surfaces
  • Toxin to release nutrients from the intestinal walls.

INULIN INTOLERANCE

Symptoms of intolerance usually include flatulence, bloating, cramps, abdominal pain, diarrhea and rarely, constipation. Basically, the worse the natural behavior of the bacteria and yeasts in your colon (AKA Ghetto Gut), the worse the symptoms of intolerance.

Undoubtedly, inulin and FOS have many beneficial actions. The disadvantage seems to be in taking inulin/FOS when a Ghetto Gut is involved. The gastrointestinal terrain controls the behavior of the bacteria – Good and Bad. A Ghetto Gut environment will convert good bacteria into bad bacteria. When the gastrointestinal tract is filled with “bad-acting” bacteria and dysbiosis will cause major problems.

Taking a probiotic along with inulin/FOS is not necessarily beneficial. While most probiotic supplements claim to be alive because they are refrigerated, are actually dead by the time you purchase them. Dead probiotics only stimulate a TH1 response (Autoimmune).

If you think inulin may be helpful to you, ingest it in the form of a whole food; by eating chicory root, Jerusalem artichokes or other foods naturally high in this substance. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin occur naturally in many foods of vegetable origin, such as onions, Jerusalem artichokes, asparagus, leeks, and garlic. However, most with inulin sensitivity already avoid these foods.  All ingredients present in whole foods work harmoniously with each other. Just as refining a single ingredient in an herb and calling it “medicine” often results in a deadly poison, so too does refining a single ingredient out of whole food often turns that ingredient into a toxic substance.ebook-itunesgumroad-lectin-ebook

 

Lactose Intolerance

Lactose is hydrolyzed by lactase in the small intestine. In cases of true lactose maldigestion, lactose passes to the large intestine without breaking down and is fermented there by the bacterial flora. In lactose-intolerant people, this causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as flatulence, bloating, abdominal pain, excess gastrointestinal rumbling, and diarrhea. Many with lactose-intolerance claim that they cannot tolerate any lactose at all in everyday life.

Studies have shown most lactose maldigesters can tolerate a single exposure to lactose without experiencing any symptoms, as was shown in double-blind trials. Additionally, only two thirds of the self-diagnosed, severely lactose-intolerant subjects were found to be lactose maldigesters and they experienced only minimal gastrointestinal symptoms after ingesting lactose in milk. Other studies have also shown that many of those who claim to be milk intolerant appear not to be lactose maldigesters when double-blind studies were conducted. However, symptoms caused by milk may be similar in lactose maldigesters and in digesters who claim to be milk intolerant. There also seem to be many lactose maldigesters who experience symptoms when there is milk in their diet even when there is no, or very little, lactose in the milk.

Besides lactose, other carbohydrates pass into the large intestine, of which, in addition to dietary fiber, resistant starch forms a significant part. Oligosaccharides and inulin from vegetables, fructose in excess of glucose, and large quantities of sorbitol and xylitol are not absorbed in the small intestine. Honey contains fructose in excess of glucose and has a laxative effect in some people. If there is a great deal of fructooligosaccharide or inulin – containing food such as wheat and onion in the diet, some people may experience symptoms.

Symptoms of inulin intolerance usually include flatulence, bloating, cramps, abdominal pain, diarrhea and rarely, constipation. Although inulin is increasingly used as a food ingredient because of its potential health benefits, i.e. dietary fiber, prebiotic, natural sweetener, & diabetic-friendly. A double-blind placebo- controlled food challenge has shown an increase of sensitivity with inulin.

The increased use of inulin, as a food ingredient has led to a greater incidence of hypersensitivity but any gastrointestinal distress would be attributed to being lactose intolerant but in reality is due to the increased addition of inulin into dairy products.

Food manufacturers, faced with demands to reduce calories, fat, and sodium while increasing fiber and flavor, are increasingly turning to products like inulin. They have discovered they can chemically manipulate the chemical structure of inulin to mimic tastes and textures consumers want in food. Their use is likely to continue to grow and “there is the potential for overuse.”

Inulin can be found in high fiber breakfast bars, ice creams, and beverages among other processed foods. The label may list inulin, chicory root extract, oligosaccharide, or oligofructose. For example, the Fiber One Chewy Bar with 9 grams of dietary fiber lists chicory root extract as its top ingredient.

FODMAPS List

In any matter – to make it easy for everyone who wants to know what is a Soft (sPHA) or Hard (hPHA) Lectin, Nightshade (Ns), high Inulin foods (hIf) and which are in the FODMAP list. I’m posting the Lectin/FODMAP list here for you. However, simply avoiding lectins is not going to reverse the damage done by them. You will need assistance guiding you in the restoration of your health. Once stimulated by lectins, the immune system remains overstimulated and you may continues to experience cytokine storms. Simply put, you are not going to eat your way out of this. You need help.

FRUITS TO AVOID DURING OFF SEASON:

Although it is possible to buy fruit throughout the year in United States, many of the fruit that will arrive at your grocery store during the winter have been held in temperature-controlled storage since they were picked in the summer or picked when immature or ‘market ripe’ to survive the shipping process. Many of these fruit are then gas ripened. When picked early and gas ripened, lectins remain active in the fruit. Thus making them high in lectins and you experience the damage and symptoms they cause.

These Fruits and Vegetables can be eaten during their Peak season, if the criteria in the Fruit FODMAP List Key are met. You can reduce your exposure to lectins by following the guidelines listed in Autoimmune Diet Lectin Avoidance Guidelines for fruit.

FRUIT FODMAP LIST KEY

sPHA Soft Lectin – Cooking diminishes or destroys lectin, Locally Grown Seasonally available produce okay to eat. EAT: 

  • Mellow – Describing fruit that is soft, sweet and juicy when ripe.
  • Ripe – Describing completely matured or developed fruit that is ready for harvesting or eating. Prone to quick spoilage.

AVOID EATING:

  • Immature(hPHA) “Not ripe” or “Green”
  • Market ripe(hPHA) Describing fruit and vegetables picked before they are mellow ripe for better survival while transporting long distance.
hPHA Hard Lectin – Cooking does not diminish or destroy lectin. Avoid eating.
Ns Nightshade, Follow the guidelines in Autoimmune Diet Lectin Avoidance Guidelines
hif High Inulin Food, Avoid eating if you are sensitive.

Excess Fructose fruit

Fruit Lectin, Inulin, FODMAO Peak Season
Apple Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Summer, Year-round 
Mango Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Summer
Nashi fruit Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  March -December
Pear Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Late Summer, Fall
Persimmon Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Late Fall, Winter
Watermelon Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Summer

Excess Fructan fruit

Fruit Lectin, Inulin, FODMAO Peak Season
Persimmon Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Late Fall, Winter
Rambutan Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Late Fall, Winter; Late Spring (short season)
Watermelon Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Summer

Excess Polyol Fruit

Fruit Lectin, Inulin, FODMAO Peak Season
Apple Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Summer, Year-round 
Apricot Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Late Spring, Summer
Avacodo Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Spring
Blackberries Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Summer
Cherries Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Late Spring, Summer
Longon Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Summer
Lychee Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Summer
Nashi fruit Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  March -December
Nectarine Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Late Spring, Summer
Peach Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Summer
Pear Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Late Summer, Fall
Plum Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Summer, Early Fall
Prune Plum Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  August
Watermelon Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Summer

SUITABLE FRUITS TO EAT WHEN IN SEASON

Fruit Lectin, Inulin, FODMAO Peak Season
Banana Green (hPHA) Year-around available
Blueberries Temperature-controlled storage Summer
Boysenberry Temperature-controlled storage July – August
Cantaloupe Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Summer
Star Fuit Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Summer to Late Winter
Cranberry Temperature-controlled storage September – October
Durian Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  June – July
Grapes Temperature-controlled storage July to December
Grapefruit Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  November to May
Honeydew melon Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Late Summer, Early Fall
Kiwi Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  November to May
Lemon Temperature-controlled storage Late Fall, Winter
Lime Temperature-controlled storage June – December
Mandarin Temperature-controlled storage Late Fall – Early Spring
Orange Temperature-controlled storage Late Fall – Early Spring
Passion Fruit Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Florida: Year Around, California: July to March
Paw paw Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA, vomiting with overconsumption Late Summer – Fall
Pineapple Temperature-controlled storage Spring to Early Summer
Raspberry Temperature-controlled storage June – July
Rhubarb Temperature-controlled storage Spring to Early Summer
Strawberrry Temperature-controlled storage Spring to Early Summer
Tangelo Out of Season/Immature, Market ripe sPHA  Fall to Early Spring

Be aware of the sulphur/sulphat (natural preservative) used on dried fruit. This natural preservative feeds sulphate-reducing bacteria. Symptoms include:

  • Pass large amounts of foul smelling gas
  • Excessive passage of gas
  • Offensive breath
  • Wake up tired even after 6 or more hours of sleep
  • Feel cold-hands, feet all over
  • Requires excessive amount of sleep to function properly
  • Thinning of hair on scalp, face, or genitals or excessive falling hair
  • Mental sluggishness
Suitable dried fruit (High Sulphur, feeds Sulphate-reducing bacteria):
Fruit Lectin, Inulin, FODMAO Season
Banana chips (hPHA) Available Year round
Cranberries Available Year round
Currants Available Year round
Paw paw vomiting with overconsumption Available Year round
Pineaple Available Year round
Sultanas Available Year round
Raisons Available Year round

Special notes on fruit:

  • Eat locally grown fruit when seasonally available.
  • Limit intake of seasonal locally grown fruits to tolerance.
  • Third to half a glass of suitable juice.
  • Small handful of berries or grapes.
  • Small amount of suitable dried fruit (e.g. 10 sultanas).

VEGETABLES TO AVOID:

Many vegetables have a very short shelf life and deteriorate rapidly if not held in temperature controlled storage. These Vegetables can be eaten during their Peak season, if the criteria in the Vegetable FODMAP List Key are met. You can reduce your exposure to lectins by following the guidelines listed in Autoimmune Diet Lectin Avoidance Guidelines for vegetables and nightshades.

VEGETABLE FODMAP LIST KEY

sPHA Soft Lectin – Cooking diminishes or destroys lectin, Locally Grown Seasonally available produce okay to eat. EAT:

  • A seed bearing vegetable is ready to eat until seeds starts start maturing.
  • The seeds in the flesh are small, soft and immature.
  • The seeds are in a separate compartment?
  • The seeds can be removed without damaging the flesh, i.e. Zucchini and cucumbers vs. Acorn squash.

AVOID:

  • A seed bearing vegetable with seeds starting to mature.
  • Seeds are maturing and increasing in size.
  • The seeds have taken over the flesh and are large, hard and mature.
  • The seeds cannot be removed without damaging the flesh, i.e. Zucchini and cucumbers vs. Acorn squash.
  • Vegetables that are flowering.
hPHA Hard Lectin – Cooking does not diminish or destroy lectin. Avoid eating or exposure to Hard Lectins.
Ns Nightshade, Follow the guidelines in Autoimmune Diet Lectin Avoidance Guidelines
hif High Inulin Food, Avoid these foods if sensitive.
AWB Avoid When Bolting – Bolting stimulates hPHA production.
Excess Fructose Vegetables:
Vegetables Lectin, Inulin, FODMAO Season
Sugar snap peas Raw: (sPHA) Peak: April – May

Excess Inulin Vegetables:

Vegetables Lectin, Inulin, FODMAO Season
Asparagus (hIf) Peak: Early Spring to Early Summer
Artichoke, Jerusalem (hIf) Winter
Banana Green (hPHA) Year-around available
Burdock Root/Stalks (hIf) Root -Peak: Fall; Stalk – Peak: Late Spring – Early Summer
Chicory (hIf), Out of Season/Mature Sappy leaves (sPHA), (AWB) Young new growth leaves – March before flowers appear and November, Roots – Fall & Early Spring
Garlic Temperature-controlled storage, (hIf) Peak – Late Summer, Available year Round
Leeks Temperature-controlled storage, (hIf) Peak – October to March, Available year round
Onion (brown, red, white & Spanish), Onion powder, White section of spring onion. Temperature-controlled storage, (hIf), (AWB) Peak – Late Summer, Available year Round
Salsify Root (hIf) Peak: Fall to Early Spring
Shallot Temperature-controlled storage, (hIf), (AWB) Peak – Late Summer, Available year Round
Yacon, Peruvian ground apple (hIf) Peak: November, December

Excess Fructan Vegetables:

Vegetables Lectin, Inulin, FODMAO Season
Artichoke, Globe (hIf) Peak Spring; California Year-around
Artichoke, Jerusalem (hIf) Winter
Beet Temperature-controlled storage, (AWB) Peak – Summer – Early Fall; 
Brussels Sprouts Temperature-controlled storage, (AWB) Peak – Late Summer to Winter, Available year Round
Cabbage Temperature-controlled storage, (AWB)
Chicory (hIf), Out of Season/Mature Sappy leaves (sPHA), (AWB) Young new growth leaves – March before flowers appear and November, Roots – Fall & Early Spring
Dandelion leaves (hIf), Out of Season/Mature Sappy leaves, flowering plant, (AWB), (sPHA) Young new growth leaves – Spring before flowers appear, Roots – Fall & Early Spring, Flowers – cut off green base
Fennel Temperature-controlled storage, (AWB) Late Summer, Fall, Winter
Garlic Temperature-controlled storage, (hIf) Peak – Late Summer, Available year Round
Leek Temperature-controlled storage, (hIf) Peak – October to March, Available year round
Legumes Hard (hPHA) Lectin Avoid If Immunocompromised, or Autoimmune, If you must eat use traditional soaking and cooking methods
Okra Out of Season/Mature fibrous pods (sPHA) December to March
Onion (brown, white, Spanish, Red) Temperature-controlled storage, (hIf), (AWB) Peak – Late Summer, Available year Round
Peas Hard (hPHA) Lectin, Out of Season/Mature fibrous pods (sPHA) Avoid If Immunocompromised, or Autoimmune, If you must eat use traditional soaking and cooking methods for dry peas, choose young fresh peas avoiding fibrous pods
Radicchio (AWB) Peak – Mid Winter to Early Spring, Available year round
Shallot Temperature-controlled storage, (hIf), (AWB) Peak – Late Summer, Available year Round
Spring Onion Temperature-controlled storage, (hIf), (AWB) Peak: Spring – Early Summer

 

Excess Polyol Vegetables:

Vegetables Lectin, Inulin, FODMAO Season
Artichoke, Globe (hIf) Peak Spring; Available Year-around
Cauliflower Temperature-controlled storage, (hIf), (AWB) Summer, Fall; Available Year-around
Mushroom (sPHA)m (hPHA) Available Year-around
Snow Peas Out of Season/Mature fibrous pods (sPHA) Winter, Spring

SUITABLE SEASONAL VEGETABLES TO EAT WHEN IN SEASON

Vegetables Lectin, Inulin, FODMAO Season
Alfalfa (AWB) Peak Late Spring – Summer
Bamboo shoots Temperature-controlled storage, (hIf), (AWB) Summer, Fall; Available Year-around
Bean shoots (sPHA), (hPHA) Available Year-around
Beans, Green Out of Season/Mature fibrous pods, (sPHA) Peak: Summer, Fall; Available Year-around
Bok Choy Temperature-controlled storage, (AWB) Peak: Spring, Fall; Available Year-around
Broccoli Temperature-controlled storage, (AWB) Peak: March – November; Available Year-around
Brocolini Temperature-controlled storage, (AWB) Peak: April – November; Available Year-around
Capsicum (Ns), Avoid green peppers – do not eat; Red, Yellow, Purple – peel it, seed it, eat it Peak: Summer, Fall; Available Year-around
Carrot Temperature-controlled storage, (AWB) Peak: Summer, Fall; Available Year-around
Celery Temperature-controlled storage, (AWB) Peak: Summer, Fall; Available Year-around
Chard, Silverbeet (AWB) Peak: April – August
Chives (AWB) Peak: Spring, Summer; Available Year-around
Choy sum Temperature-controlled storage, (AWB) Peak: Spring, Summer; Available Year-around
Corn Best when kernels are milky, Avoid when kernels become solid, Press fingernail into kernel to determine Peak: Summer
Endive (AWB) Peak: Winter, Early Spring
Eggplant (Ns), Avoid mature eggplants with seeds Peak: Summer, Early Fall; 
Ginger Temperature-controlled storage, (AWB) Peak: Late Fall
Lettuce (AWB), Avoid porous sappy mature heads Peak: Early Spring – Early Summer
Marrow (AWB), Avoid larger seed filled fruit Peak: Summer
Olives Peak: Fall, Available cured year round
Parsnip Temperature-controlled storage, (AWB) Peak: Fall Winter
Parsley (AWB) Peak: Spring – Summer
Potato (Ns), Peel it, Cook it; Sprouting – peel it, fry it; Green spots – avoid (hPHA) Peak: Available Year Round
Pumpkin Temperature-controlled storage Peak: Fall
Rhutabaga, Swede Temperature-controlled storage Peak: Fall Winter
Spring onion Temperature-controlled storage, (hIf), (AWB) Peak: Spring – Early Summer
Spinach (AWB) Peak: Spring, Fall (Cool Season Crop)
Squash, Summer Avoid mature Summer Squash with seeds Peak: Late Spring, Summer
Squash, Winter Temperature-controlled storage Peak: Late Summer, Falls
Sweet potato Temperature-controlled storage Peak: Fall Winter; Available year round
Taro (hPHA) Available Year-around
Tomato (Ns) Peak: Summer, Early Fall; 
Turnip Temperature-controlled storage Peak: Fall Winter
Yam Temperature-controlled storage Peak: Fall Winter
Zucchini Avoid mature Zucchini with seeds Peak: Late Spring, Summer

OTHER FODMAPs FOODS (containing, FRUCTOSE &/or Fructans) to AVOID:

  • Honey
  • Corn syrups
  • Corn syrup solids
  • Fruisana
  • Chickory
  • Dandelion tea
  • Inulin
  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Sugar free or low carb sweets, mints, gums, & dairy desserts.

For more information on re-regulating your immune system and repairing the damage done by lectins. Call (530) 615-4083 today.

2 thoughts on “The Lectin – FODMAP Diet Connection

  1. Great article! I’m not sure about something though, it’s not clear to me if zucchini and cucumber should be avoided, I mean, I could remove the seeds even if I miss a part of the flesh… is it ok to eat if I remove the seeds, or this type of vegetable isn’t so good to be consumed?

    • Great question. This is explained in the Autoimmune Diet Lectin Avoidance Guidelines available either as an iBook or spiral bound book. Plants infuse lectins into the skin, hulls of the seeds and surrounding pulp to protect the next generation. Lectins are irritating and/or damaging to the intestinal lining. Shop for the youngest zucchini and cucumber before they start developing seeds. You are not able to scrap out the lectins infusing the flesh after seeds have developed. Follow the Lectin Avoidance charts in the above mentioned guidelines.

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